New Books by symposium speakers and organizers


The Future of the World: Futurology, Futurists, and the Struggle for the Post Cold War Imagination

By Jenny Andersson

Oxford University Press

This book will be available in August 2018. See here.


The Future of the World is devoted to the intriguing field of study which emerged after World War Two, futurism or futurology. Jenny Andersson explains how futurist scholars and researchers imagined the Cold War and post Cold War world and the tools and methods they would use to influence and change that world. 

Futurists were a motley crew of Cold War warriors, nuclear scientists, journalists, and peace activists. Some argued it should be a closed sphere of science defined by delimited probabilities. They were challenged by alternative notions of the future as a potentially open realm. 

Futurism also drew on an eclectic range of repertoires, some of which were deduced from positivist social science, mathematics, and nuclear physics, and some of which sprung from alternative forms of knowledge in science fiction, journalism, or religion. 

These different forms of prediction laid very different claims to how accurately futures could be known, and what kind of control could be exerted over what was yet to come. The Future of the World carefully examines these different engagements with the future, and inscribes them in the intellectual history of the post war period. Using unexplored archival collections, The Future of the World reconstructs the Cold War networks of futurologists and futurists.

Table of Contents:

1. A New History of The Future? From Conceptual History to Intellectual World History
2. The Future as Moral Imperative : Foundations of Futurism
3. Futures of Liberalism: The Congress for Cultural Freedom and Futurology as a Transnational Space
4. The Future as Social Technology : Prediction And The Rise Of Futurology
5. Predicting the Future of American Society: From RAND to the Commission for the Year 2000
6. Bridging the Iron Curtain: Futurology as Dissidence and Control
7. The Future of the World: The World Futures Studies Federation and the Future as Counter Expertise
8. The Futurists: Spreading Futurology to the World

About the author:

Jenny Andersson holds a PhD in economic history from Uppsala University in Sweden. She is currently a scholar with the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and based at Sciences Po in Paris, where she also co directs the Max Planck Sciences Po Center. She has worked on the intellectual history of contemporary social democracy, and more recently, on the history of future research and concepts of the future in the post war era.



How Do We Explore Our Futures?

Edited by Sirkka Heinonen, Osmo Kuusi & Hazel Salminen

Acts Futura Fennica 10, The Finnish Society for Futures Studies (

The book is available in paperback and PDF here.



 This book comprises 21 leading Finnish futurists revea­ling their practical and theoretical know­led­ge of futu­res studies. The texts are a cross-section of twenty years of futures research. The writers present methods and their practical applications, demon­strating various inter­actions between futu­res research and other fields of science.

The book samples a large variety of modern futures studies’ methodology including sections on evolu­tio­nary and systems thinking, expert-based know­led­ge eva­lu­ation and time-series based methods like Delphi and Cau­sal Layered Analysis (CLA). The book also deals with com­municative futures methods such as futures work­shops and scenario work. In ad­di­tion, it includes three chapters focusing on newer methods such as the anti­cipation of Weak Signals and Black Swans.

This book is a comprehensive reading for anyone interested in futures studies theory and its practical ap­pli­cations. As a fundamental publication of futures studies methods this book is also suitable for lec­ture support material for universities. The purpose of the book is to familiarize the reader with the idea of futures studies and the basic methods of futures as a scientific discipline. We hope that the readers will find this publication and its arguments a stimulating trigger, launching creative argumentation about our responsibility to imagine alternative futures. 


1. Osmo Kuusi and Sirkka Heinonen: Introduction

Theme I: The fundamentals of futures knowledge

2. Pentti Malaska: Futures consciousness and the knowledge of the future—Focus on the future

3. Ilkka Niiniluoto: Futures studies: A science or art? 

4. Matti Männikkö: Studying the future and writing history

5. Olavi Borg: The disciplinary identity of futures studies and its relation to other disciplines

Theme II: Evolutionary and systems thinking

6. Jyrki Luukkanen: System models in research and planning—Building a new dialectic framework

7. Jarl-Thure Eriksson: Chaos theory and the manageability of complex systems

8. Mika Pantzar: The evolution theory as a futures research method

9. Osmo Kuusi: Futures research and economic models—Different approaches of economics and futures research in modelling

Theme III: Scenario thinking

10. Pentti Malaska and Ilkka Virtanen: Theory of Futuribles and Historibles

11. Yrjö Seppälä: The futures table (morphological matrix) method—Case report: Care for the elderly / Comments by Osmo Kuusi

12. Vuokko Jarva: Scenarising in dialogue

13. Tarja Meristö: Scenario building in strategic management—Why scenarios?

14. Timo Sneck: From the functional paradigm of futures studies to e-forecasting systems

Theme IV: Futures workshops as methodology

15. Juha Nurmela: The future workshop and new methods for shaping the future in the “workshop spirit”

16. Marja-Liisa Viherä: We make the future—The Communication Camp

Theme V: Expert-knowledge based evaluation

17. Osmo Kuusi: The Delphi method

18. Sirkka Heinonen: Pioneer analysis and international cultural changes—Positrend and negatrend analysis in the identification of cultural change

19. Anita Rubin: Causal Layered Analysis (CLA)

Theme IV: The creative recognition of new opportunities

20. Elina Hiltunen: Weak signals

21. Tuomo Kuosa: Future signals as a sense-making tool

22. Sirkka Heinonen and Juho Ruotsalainen: Antipation and interpretation of black swans as a learning process—The lessons of a volcanic ash cloud

23. Petri Kylliäinen: Role-playing game scenarios